To get an access on your Ameli account, you first have to be registered with the Assurance Maladie (Health Insurance) and obtain a permanent Social Security number. 

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French Social Security scheme for health coverage, general information / Sécurité Sociale (CPAM - Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie)

Registration process to the French social security for foreign students

Comment reconnaître mon numéro de Sécurité Sociale? / How to recognize my own Social Security number?

If your Social Security number starts by 7 (for a man) or 8 (for a woman), it means that it is a temporary social security number.

You can create your ameli account only with your permanent social security number, using the first 13 digits.