There are 2 cases, either you have to apply via Campus France or directly at the nearest French consulate.

List of countries where visa application must be carried out via Campus France

1) If you have to apply via Campus France, the article below may be useful

I'm non European, have to apply for a French student visa via Campus France

2) If there is no Campus France (Centre d'Etudes en France (CEF)) in the country where you reside

You must obtain a student visa from the nearest French Consulate. 

In case you do not reside in your country of origin, you can apply at the nearest French Consulate by providing proof of residence in the country where you submit your visa application.

Example: you are from India, currently residing in Dubai. You apply for a visa at the French consulate in Dubai while providing a proof of residence in Dubai.

List of French Consulates in the world.

Official website for visa application to France.

Caution! Bear in mind that you come to France as a student, not as a tourist, even though your study period is short.